Welcome to the Internet Handbook of German Grammar

This site is intended to provide students, readers, and translators of German with a concise and comprehensive reference grammar, one available on the web. Because we are currently writing the grammar, and work progresses chapter by chapter, the table of contents is yet incomplete. The Table of Contents references, near the end, some chapters of a short, though defective, conversational grammar, in which we color the necessary corrections. We believe the so marked grammar pages might be instructive to students of German. Links connect to appropriate places in our comprehensive grammar.

The mainstay of our bibliography is The Duden Grammatik, Duden Verlag (1984).

The Duden Grammar is the continually evolving and generally accepted, comprehensive, standard grammar on which we base the Handbook. Our language object is thus the current spoken and written standard language, die deutsche Standardsprache (Hochsprache), which is a superregional, institutionalized means of communication serving the German speaking societies at large. As distinguished from regional styles, the standard language is communication bearer in culture, science, politics, literature, media, school, university, church, and other public domains.

The standard grammar and language are anchored in referenced and reviewed literature as it evolves. In a growing trend, the standard language is used also as spoken language. Hence, there is manifold interaction between the two. Partly because of the remarkable dimensionality, which the German grammar can offer, a broad spectrum of unique focuses in meaning and interpretation is available. We point out many of these important alternatives.

The German grammar's concepts and rules are actually presented here in the format of a self consistent construct, as distinguished from mere extensions of the English grammar. Such extensions encounter an intrinsic limit at a low level of conversational German, beyond which they fail. Our construct is written in English, where the Latin version of the German grammatical terminology is used, and correlated with the English grammatical equivalent whenever it exists.

The grammar in our Internet Handbook is thus written for the international student and user of the German language who has a working knowledge of English, and command of sufficient German to understand the examples in the text.


Adjective Endings
Weak declension pattern | Mixed declension pattern | Strong declension pattern

Pronouns, Personal Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns | Possessive Pronouns | Demonstrative Pronouns | Relative and Interrogative Pronouns | Indefinite Pronouns

Verb Definitions, and basic conjugations

Auxiliary Verbs, Modal Verbs, Verb Sequence Rules
Auxiliary Verbs | Verb Sequence Rules I | Modal Verbs| Verb Sequence Rules II

Verb Inflections
Introduc. + Application Notes I | Application Notes II | Inflections Active Voice | Inflections Werden Voice| Inflections Sein Voice

Subjunctives and Indirect Speech
Preface | Application Indicative; Konjunktiv I | Appl. Konjunktiv II | Appl. Würde form| Appl. indirect speech| English Grammar Rules

A Short Conversational Grammar With Annotated Corrections

Adjective Endings
The Conditional
Indirect Speech
The Subjunctive: The Konjunktiv I
The Subjunctive: The Konjunktiv II

Created: 13.04.98
Last modified: 11.05.00
Author: H.Vogel email: hvogel@travlang.com
Site maintained by: H.Vogel

Copyright (c)H.Vogel at The Travlang Company, 1998.

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