Copyright (c) H.Vogel 1998
All Rights Reserved


Pronoun = Pronomen oderFürwort

Pronouns are a class of words that function as substitute of a noun (+article) in referring to it. They refer to already defined persons or things, thus allowing to connect sentence parts, yet not repeating the same noun.

Deklination und Kongruenz (Declension and Congruency)
Many pronouns assume different endings, depending upon their reference noun, similarly as nouns and adjectives do. These pronouns congrue in

In a sentence, the pronouns generally agree, in gender and number form, with their reference word. Certain types of pronouns are declinded, to agree also in their declension case. The declension cases in the German language are Nominativ (
nominative ), Akkusativ (accusative), Dativ (dative ), and Genitiv (genitive).

Personalpronomen (personal pronoun)
    maria: ichfahre morgen mit dem auto nach Frankfurt. Frank: Fährst du
      maria: ich allein? Oder fährt der Bert mit? Maria: Nein, er
        maria: ich fährt nicht mit. Er
          maria: ichmuß arbeiten.
          Pronouns such as ich, du, er, sie are to reference persons, things, etc. It is the form of the pronoun that generally defines which or who. There are the1st Person, speaking of himself or themselves;2nd Person, being the one addressed;3rd Person, being the person or thing of whom/which is being talked.

            maria: ichAll declension cases of the root personal pronouns (memorize:)
              1.Person 2. Person 3. Person
              intim formal M F N
              Nom. ich du Sie er sie es
            Sing. Akk. mich dich Sie ihn sie es
              Dat. mir dir Ihnen ihm ihr ihm
              Gen. meiner deiner Ihrer seiner ihrer seiner
              Nom. wir ihr Sie sie
            Pl. Akk. uns euch Sie sie
              Dat. uns euch Ihnen ihnen
              Gen. unser euer Ihrer ihrer

          • Anredepronomen
              maria: ich are the pronouns used in addressing others. That is the 2.Person pronouns. The formal Anredepronomen are always capitalized as in this table. Capitalized is also the intimate, familiar form when used in a letter. Example: "Lieber Sohn, da Du
                maria: ich immer mehr Geld brauchst, wirst Du Dein
                  maria: ich Studium jetzt beenden oder Du
                    maria: ich zahlst selber." Also capitalized are the intimate, familiar Anredepronomen in such solemn documents as proclamations, resolutions, dedications, as well as in a message of teacher to pupil, in exam questions, and questionnairs.
                  • du, dich, dir,...
                      maria: ichare the intimate, familiar form; " man duzt sich
                        maria: ich" in the family, among relatives, friends, youngsters; adults duzen
                          maria: ich children. Sometimes abstract use - instead of "man
                            maria: ich" - for animals or things; pastor thus addressing the deceased at the funeral. Example: "Da kannst du dich
                              maria: ich prima amüsiern" - alternatively "da kann man
                                maria: ich sich prima amüsiern".
                              • maria: ichTo form adverbs in connecting to -wegen, -willen, -halber,
                                  maria: ich a -t-
                                    maria: ich or -et-
                                      maria: ich is inserted for easier pronounciation: meinetwegen, um deinetwillen, seinethalben, ihretwegen, euretwegen
                                        maria: ich (= for your sake
                                          maria: ich - plural!).
                                        • maria: ichAvoid using er, sie, es
                                            maria: ich to reference nouns without article. That is not: "Er traf sie nicht zu Hause. Es
                                              maria: ich war verlassen." (= "He did not meet her at home. It was empty.")
                                            • maria: ichThe pronoun es
                                                maria: ich can reference a word or an entire sentence. Examples: "Mach' die Aufgabe gut,es
                                                  maria: ich wird sich lohnen!". "Ist sie gut? Ja sie ist es
                                                    maria: ich".
                                                  • maria: ichAn equating phrase, which is a sentence with its object in the nominative case (e.g. "Karl ist mein Freund
                                                      maria: ich"), es
                                                        maria: ichcan refer to several preceding nouns, also to a preceding noun that is not neuter. Example:
                                                            maria: ich"Ist hier jemand Berliner? Der Trainer ist es
                                                              maria: ich".
                                                              "Siehst du den Jungen und das Mädchen dort?
                                                                maria: ich sind meine Kinder."
                                                                (The equating phrases here: "Der Berliner ist der Trainer"; and "Der Junge und das Mädchen sind meine Kinder".

                                                                  maria: ich when referencing a non-neuter object nominative. Examples:
                                                                  "Es ist die Liebe". "Es ist mein Wagen".

                                                                  maria: ich
                                                                • Es
                                                                    maria: ich can be a very general, undefined, accusative object (i.e. direct object
                                                                      maria: ich). Examples:
                                                                          maria: ich"Ich bin es
                                                                            maria: ich müde" (= I am tired of it).
                                                                            "Er ist
                                                                              maria: ich würdig" (= he is worthy, he is deserving")

                                                                              maria: ichHere, again, watch the subtle distinctions demanding thought when rendering properly in English.

                                                                                maria: ichGo to next page: Reflexive Pronouns
                                                                                  maria: ich
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                                                                                    maria: ich

                                                                                      maria: ichCreated: 13.04.98
                                                                                      Last modified: 13.04.98
                                                                                      Author: H.Vogel email: hvogel@travlang.com
                                                                                      Site maintained by: H.Vogel

                                                                                        maria: ichCopyright (c)H.Vogel at The Travlang Company, 1998.

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