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  Serbia and Montenegro  
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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Map of Serbia and Montenegro

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Serbia and Montenegro
Definition Field Listing
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 was resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought each other as well as the invaders. The group headed by Marshal TITO took full control upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist, his new government and its successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In the early 1990s, post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina were recognized as independent states in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) in April 1992 and, under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." All of these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful and led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992. In 1999, massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response, including the NATO bombing of Serbia and the stationing of NATO, Russian, and other peacekeepers in Kosovo. Federal elections in the fall of 2000, brought about the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. The arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations under the name of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999, under the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244. In 2002, the Serbian and Montenegrin components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. These talks became a reality in February 2003 when lawmakers restructured the country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. An agreement was also reached to permit a referendum in each republic in three years on full independence.
   Geography    Serbia and Montenegro
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 102,350 sq km
land: 102,136 sq km
water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Definition Field Listing
199 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Definition Field Listing
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 33.35%
permanent crops: 3.2%
other: 63.45% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
570 sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast
   People    Serbia and Montenegro
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,825,900 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 1,027,479; female 956,681)
15-64 years: 66.8% (male 3,602,959; female 3,627,616)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 693,929; female 917,236) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36.6 years
male: 35.1 years
female: 38.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.03% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.13 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.53 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 13.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.4 years
male: 71.9 years
female: 77.12 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)
Definition Field Listing
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Definition Field Listing
Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 97.2%
female: 88.9% (1991)
   Government    Serbia and Montenegro
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro
conventional short form: none
local long form: Srbija i Crna Gora
local short form: none
former: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
abbreviation: SCG
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Definition Field Listing
27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY - now Serbia and Montenegro - formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 27 April
Definition Field Listing
4 February 2003
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet
elections: president elected by the Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 7 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by the Parliament; vote was Svetozar MAROVIC 65, other 47
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament (126 seats - 91 Serbian, 35 Montenegrin - filled by nominees of the two state parliaments for the first two years, after which the president will call for public elections
elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DOS 37, DLECG 19, DSS 17, ZP 14, SPS 12, SRS 8, SDP 5, SSJ 5, other 9
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Federal Court or Savezni Sud; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms
note: since the promulgation of the 2003 Constitution, the Federal Court has constitutional and administrative functions; it has an equal number of judges from each republic
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Opposition of Serbia or DOS (a coalition of many small parties including DSS; it disbanded in November 2003) [leader NA]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Democratic List for European Montenegro or DLECG [Milo DJUKANOVIC, Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; G17+ [Miroljub LABUS]; Party of Serb Unity or SSJ [Borislav PELEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party and party of Slobodan MILOSEVIC) [Zoran ANDJELKOVIC, general secretary]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Rasim LJAJIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Otpor Student Resistance Movement [leader NA]; Political Council for Presevo, Meveda and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Roderick W. MOORE; note - Michael C. POLT to become ambassador
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
consulate(s): Podgornica
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
   Economy    Serbia and Montenegro
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 have left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001; it wrote off 66% of the debt. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo, while technically still part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, is largely autonomous under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is greatly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are official currencies, and UNMIK collects taxes and manages the budget. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, legal uncertainty over property rights, and scarcity of foreign-investment are holding back Serbia and Montenegro's economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $23.89 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 15.2%
industry: 28.2%
services: 56.5% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
30% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.2% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.93 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.5% (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $8.668 billion
expenditures: $9.633 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
123.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
Definition Field Listing
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.7% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31.71 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
32.37 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
446 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
64,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.75 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.07 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-2.416 billion (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.667 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 31.6%, Germany 17.5%, Austria 6.2%, France 6%, Greece 5.4%, Slovenia 4.1%, Hungary 4% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.144 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 18.8%, Italy 16.3%, Austria 8.1%, Slovenia 6.6%, Hungary 5.8%, France 4.8%, Bulgaria 4.6%, Greece 4.4% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.7 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14.01 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
Definition Field Listing
in Serbia the Serbian dinar (CSD) is legal tender, but the euro (EUR) is the de facto currency; in Montenegro and Kosovo the euro is legal tender. (2004)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - official rate: 65 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Serbia and Montenegro
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,611,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,634,600 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 381; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in the principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,207 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
847,000 (2003)
   Transportation    Serbia and Montenegro
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4,380 km
standard gauge: 4,380 km 1.435-m gauge (1,445 km electrified) (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 49,805 km
paved: 31,029 km (including 560 km of expressways)
unpaved: 18,776 km (2000)
Definition Field Listing
587 km
note: Danube River traffic delayed by pontoon bridge at Novi Sad; plan to replace by summer of 2005 (2004)
Definition Field Listing
gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika
Definition Field Listing
45 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 12 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
4 (2003 est.)
   Military    Serbia and Montenegro
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (VJ) (including ground forces with border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (nine months compulsory service) (2004)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,718,234 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,184,937 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 81,245 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$654 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
   Transnational Issues    Serbia and Montenegro
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the future status of Kosovo remains an unresolved issue in South Central Europe with Kosovo Albanians overwhelmingly supporting and Serbian officials opposing Kosovo independence; the international community has agreed to begin a process to determine final status only after significant progress has been made in solidifying multi-ethnic democracy in Kosovo as outlined in the policy of "standards before status"; the Contact group (including the US, UK, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia) will review progress on the UNMIK standard around mid-2005; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo resist demarcation of the F.Y.R.O.M. boundary in accordance with the 2000 delimitation treaty, which transfers on net a small amount of land to F.Y.R.O.M.; Serbia and Montenegro have delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees: 99,170 (Bosnia), 188,656 (Croatia)
IDPs: 225,000 (mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

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