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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Map of United States

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    United States
Definition Field Listing
Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. The economy is marked by steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.
   Geography    United States
Definition Field Listing
North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
38 00 N, 97 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
North America
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 9,631,418 sq km
land: 9,161,923 sq km
water: 469,495 sq km
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; about two and a half times the size of Western Europe
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12,034 km
border countries: Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,141 km
note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 29 km
Definition Field Listing
19,924 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Definition Field Listing
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Definition Field Listing
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Death Valley -86 m
highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 19.13%
permanent crops: 0.22%
other: 80.65% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
214,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the midwest and southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Mt. McKinley is highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent
   People    United States
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
293,027,571 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 20.8% (male 31,122,974; female 29,713,748)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 97,756,380; female 98,183,309)
65 years and over: 12.4% (male 15,078,204; female 21,172,956) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36 years
male: 34.7 years
female: 37.4 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.92% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.13 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.34 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 77.43 years
male: 74.63 years
female: 80.36 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.07 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
950,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14,000 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: American(s)
adjective: American
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
white 77.1%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1.5%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.3%, other 4% (2000)
note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.)
Definition Field Listing
Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 24%, Mormon 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, other 10%, none 10% (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1999 est.)
   Government    United States
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Definition Field Listing
Washington, DC
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing
American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island
note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. It entered into a political relationship with all four political units: the Northern Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986)
Definition Field Listing
4 July 1776 (from Great Britain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Definition Field Listing
17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President George W. BUSH (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President George W. BUSH (since 20 January 2001) ; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms; election last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held November 2008)
election results: George W. BUSH reelected president; percent of popular vote - George W. BUSH (Republican Party) 50.9%, John KERRY (Democratic Party) 48.1%, other 0.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats, one-third are renewed every two years; two members are elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held November 2006); House of Representatives - last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held November 2006)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 55, Democratic Party 44, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 231, Democratic Party 200, undecided 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for life on condition of good behavior by the president with confirmation by the Senate); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Party [Terence McAULIFFE]; Green Party [leader NA]; Libertarian Party [Steve DASBACH]; Republican Party [Edward GILLESPIE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-5, G-7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MICAH, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico
   Economy    United States
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $37,800. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy considerably greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to entry in their rivals' home markets than the barriers to entry of foreign firms in US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. The years 1994-2000 witnessed solid increases in real output, low inflation rates, and a drop in unemployment to below 5%. The year 2001 saw the end of boom psychology and performance, with output increasing only 0.3% and unemployment and business failures rising substantially. The response to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 showed the remarkable resilience of the economy. Moderate recovery took place in 2002 with the GDP growth rate rising to 2.4%. A major short-term problem in first half 2002 was a sharp decline in the stock market, fueled in part by the exposure of dubious accounting practices in some major corporations. The war in March/April 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq shifted resources to the military. In 2003, growth in output and productivity and the recovery of the stock market to above 10,000 for the Dow Jones Industrial Average were promising signs. Unemployment stayed at the 6% level, however, and began to decline only at the end of the year. Long-term problems include inadequate investment in economic infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, sizable trade and budget deficits, and stagnation of family income in the lower economic groups.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $10.99 trillion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.1% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $37,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 26.2%
services: 72.5% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
12% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 30.5% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
45 (2004)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
146.5 million (includes unemployed) (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
farming, forestry, and fishing 2.4%, manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts 24.1%, managerial, professional, and technical 31%, sales and office 28.9%, other services 13.6%
note: figures exclude the unemployed (2001)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.782 trillion
expenditures: $2.156 trillion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62.4% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest products; fish
Definition Field Listing
leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.719 trillion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.602 trillion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
18.17 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
38.48 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.054 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.65 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.45 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
548.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
640.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.16 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
114.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.195 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-541.8 billion (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$714.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Canada 23.4%, Mexico 13.5%, Japan 7.2%, UK 4.7%, Germany 4% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.26 trillion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Canada 17.4%, China 12.5%, Mexico 10.7%, Japan 9.3%, Germany 5.3% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$85.94 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.4 trillion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $6.9 billion (1997)
Definition Field Listing
US dollar (USD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
British pounds per US dollar - 0.6139 (2003), 0.6661 (2002), 0.6944 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.4045 (2003), 1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001), 1.4851 (2000), 1.4857 (1999), Japanese yen per US dollar - 116.08 (2003), 125.39 (2002), 121.53 (2001), 107.77 (2000), 113.91 (1999), euros per US dollar - 0.8866 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 October - 30 September
   Communications    United States
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
181,599,900 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
158.722 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country
international: country code - 1; 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 4,762, FM 5,542, shortwave 18 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
more than 1,500 (including nearly 1,000 stations affiliated with the five major networks - NBC, ABC, CBS, FOX, and PBS; in addition, there are about 9,000 cable TV systems) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
115,311,958 (2002)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
159 million (2002)
   Transportation    United States
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 228,464 km
standard gauge: 228,464 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6,406,296 km
paved: 4,148,395 km (including 74,898 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,257,902 km (2002)
Definition Field Listing
41,009 km (19,312 km used for commerce) (2004)
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products 244,620 km; natural gas 548,665 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Anchorage, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Duluth, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Port Canaveral, Portland (Oregon), Prudhoe Bay, San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Toledo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 466 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 12,436,658 GRT/14,630,116 DWT
by type: barge carrier 8, bulk 69, cargo 75, chemical tanker 12, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 100, multi-functional large load carrier 3, passenger 12, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 81, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 83, short-sea/passenger 3, vehicle carrier 12
foreign-owned: Australia 2, Canada 7, Denmark 17, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 6, Singapore 3, United Kingdom 5
registered in other countries: 670 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
14,807 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,128
over 3,047 m: 188
2,438 to 3,047 m: 221
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,375
914 to 1,523 m: 2,383
under 914 m: 961 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9,679
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 161
914 to 1,523 m: 1,714
under 914 m: 7,796 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
155 (2003 est.)
   Military    United States
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard (Coast Guard administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 73,597,731 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
NA (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 2,124,164 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$370.7 billion (FY04 est.) (March 2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.3% (FY03 est.) (February 2004)
   Transnational Issues    United States
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure in the border region has strained water-sharing arrangements with Mexico; undocumented nationals from Mexico and Central America continue to enter the United States illegally; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes with Canada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other state; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
consumer of cocaine shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean; consumer of heroin, marijuana, and increasingly methamphetamine from Mexico; consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

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