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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Map of Uganda

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Uganda
Definition Field Listing
Uganda achieved independence from the UK in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. During the 1990s, the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.
   Geography    Uganda
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, west of Kenya
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
1 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 236,040 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Definition Field Listing
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 25.88%
permanent crops: 10.65%
other: 63.47% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
90 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; poaching is widespread
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
   People    Uganda
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 50.6% (male 6,696,193; female 6,653,764)
15-64 years: 47.1% (male 6,199,732; female 6,233,678)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 269,990; female 351,186) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14.8 years
male: 14.7 years
female: 14.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.97% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46.31 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.61 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: according to the UNHCR, by the end of 2001, Uganda was host to 178,815 refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 155,996, Rwanda 14,375, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 7,459 (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 86.15 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 93.58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 78.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 45.28 years
male: 43.76 years
female: 46.83 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.64 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
600,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
84,000 (2001 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
typhoid fever, malaria, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Baganda 17%, Ankole 8%, Basoga 8%, Iteso 8%, Bakiga 7%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Batoro 3%, Bunyoro 3%, Alur 2%, Bagwere 2%, Bakonjo 2%, Jopodhola 2%, Karamojong 2%, Rundi 2%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 8%
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%
Definition Field Listing
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.9%
male: 79.5%
female: 60.4% (2003 est.)
   Government    Uganda
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
56 districts; Adjumani, Apac, Arua, Bugiri, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Kyenjojo, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakasongola, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe
Definition Field Listing
9 October 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Definition Field Listing
8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved upon the promulgation of the constitution in October 1995
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 12 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); note - first popular election for president since independence in 1962 was held in 1996; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 69.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 27.8%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (303 members - 214 directly elected by popular vote, 81 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 56, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 8 ex officio members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 June 2001 (next to be held May or June 2006);
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - election campaigning by party was not permitted
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
only one political organization, the Movement (formerly the NRM)[President MUSEVENI, chairman] is allowed to operate unfettered; note - the president maintains that the Movement is not a political party, but a mass organization, which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans
note: the constitution requires the suspension of political parties while the Movement organization is in governance; of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE]; Democratic Party or DP [Paul SSEMOGERERE]; Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Justice Forum [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; and National Democrats Forum [Chapaa KARUHANGA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Popular Resistance Against a Life President or PRALP
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Edith Grace SSEMPALA
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jimmy KOLKER
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Rd., Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 234-142
FAX: [256] (41) 258-451
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side
   Economy    Uganda
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. During 1990-2001, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Corruption within the government and slippage in the government's determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001-02 was solid despite continued decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export. Solid growth in 2003 reflected an upturn in Uganda's export markets.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $36.1 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.4% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 36.1%
industry: 21.2%
services: 42.8% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 21% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37.4 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.9% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.09 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 82%, industry 5%, services 13% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.123 billion
expenditures: $1.433 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY98/99 est.) (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, cut flowers
Definition Field Listing
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.928 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.62 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
174 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-237 million (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$495 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, fish and fish products, tea; gold, cotton, flowers, horticultural products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Kenya 14.7%, Switzerland 13.7%, Netherlands 9.2%, UK 6.4%, South Africa 5.6% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.179 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Kenya 26%, India 7.4%, South Africa 7.2%, Japan 6.6%, UK 6.3%, UAE 5.8%, US 5.7%, China 5.1% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.08 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.818 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$1.4 billion (2000)
Definition Field Listing
Ugandan shilling (UGX)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Ugandan shillings per US dollar - 1,963.72 (2003), 1,797.55 (2002), 1,755.66 (2001), 1,644.48 (2000), 1,454.83 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Uganda
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
61,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
776,200 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: seriously inadequate; two cellular systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase in the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short-range traffic
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
8 (plus one low-power repeater) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,692 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
125,000 (2003)
   Transportation    Uganda
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,241 km
narrow gauge: 1,241 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 27,000 km
paved: 1,809 km
unpaved: 25,191 km (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
300 km (on Lake Victoria, 200 km on Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, and parts of Albert Nile) (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,091 GRT/5,943 DWT
by type: roll on/roll off 3 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
27 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 7 (2003 est.)
   Military    Uganda
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ugandan Peoples' Defense Force (UPDF): Army, Marine Unit, Air Wing
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,678,649 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 3,085,053 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$128.2 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Uganda
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Tutsi, Hutu, Lendu, Hema, and other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; civil conflict in Sudan has extended Sudanese rebel forces and refugees into Uganda and given shelter to Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army soldiers in Sudan; Kenya and Uganda are working together to stem cattle rustling and violence by Lord's Resistance Army along the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees: 184,731 (Sudan), 18,000 (Rwanda)
IDPs: 1.4 million (ongoing LRA rebellion, mainly in the North; LRA frequently attacks IDP camps) (2004)

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

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