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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Map of Philippines

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Philippines
Definition Field Listing
The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. The islands attained their independence in 1946 after Japanese occupation in World War II. The 21-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a widespread popular rebellion forced him into exile. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. The Philippines has had a series of electoral presidential transitions since the removal of MARCOS. The government continues to struggle with armed Muslim insurgencies in the south.
   Geography    Philippines
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
13 00 N, 122 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Definition Field Listing
36,289 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Definition Field Listing
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 18.95%
permanent crops: 16.77%
other: 64.28% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
15,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
   People    Philippines
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
86,241,697 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 35.8% (male 15,758,255; female 15,152,291)
15-64 years: 60.2% (male 25,847,345; female 26,096,211)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 1,473,873; female 1,913,722) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22.1 years
male: 21.6 years
female: 22.6 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.88% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.8 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.53 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24.24 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.6 years
male: 66.74 years
female: 72.61 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.22 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 500 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
Definition Field Listing
two official languages - Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English; eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2002)
   Government    Philippines
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
79 provinces and 115 chartered cities
: provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
: chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamayan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Markina, Masbate, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Pablo, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Oriental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga
Definition Field Listing
12 June 1898 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 12 June (1898)
note: 12 June 1898 was the date of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was the date of independence from the US
Definition Field Listing
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: results of the election - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (212 members representing districts plus 24 sectora party-list members; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
elections: Senate - last held 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2007); House of Representatives - elections last held 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - Lakas 30%, LP 13%, KNP 13%, independents 13%, others 31%; seats by party - Lakas 7, LP 3, KNP 3, independents 3, others 7; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected vice president; 14 senators are pro-government, 9 are in opposition; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Lakas-CMD 91, NPC 58, LP 29, LDP 15, other 19 (2004)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA, president]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA, president]; Liberal Party or LP [Florencio ABAD, president; Franklin DRILON, chairman]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUANGCO, chairman emeritus; Frisco SAN JUAN, president; Faustino DY, chairman]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL, chairman; Jejomar BINAY, president]; Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Horacio MORALES, president]; Aksyon Demokratiko Party [Raul ROCO, president]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA, chairman]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Bayan Muna [Reps. Satur OCAMPO, Liza MAZA, and Crispin BELTRAN]; Bagong Alyasang Makabayan or BAYAN [Nathaniel SANTIAGO and Teddy CASINO]; League of Filipino Students [Noel COLINA]; AKBAYAN [Rep. Loretta ROSALES]; SANLAKAS [Renato CONSTANTINO]; Confederation for Unity, Reform and Advancement for Government Employees or COURAGE [Ferdinand GAITE] (2003)
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Albert DEL ROSARIO
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, San Jose (Northern Mariana Islands), Tamuning (Guam)
consulate(s): San Diego
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 523-6300
FAX: [63] (2) 522-4361
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star
   Economy    Philippines
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The Philippines was less severely affected by the Asian financial crisis of 1998 than its neighbors, aided in part by annual remittances of $6-7 billion from overseas workers. From a 0.6% decline in 1998, GDP expanded by 2.4% in 1999, and 4.4% in 2000, but slowed to 3.2% in 2001 in the context of a global economic slowdown, an export slump, and political and security concerns. GDP growth accelerated to 4.4% in 2002 and 4.2% in 2003, reflecting the continued resilience of the service sector, gains in industrial output, and improved exports. Nonetheless, it will take a higher, sustained growth path to make appreciable progress in poverty alleviation given the Philippines' high annual population growth rate and unequal distribution of income. The MACAPAGAL-ARROYO Administration has promised to continue economic reforms to help the Philippines match the pace of development in the newly industrialized countries of East Asia. The strategy includes improving the infrastructure, strengthening tax collection to bolster government revenues, furthering deregulation and privatization of the economy, enhancing the viability of the financial system, and increasing trade integration with the region. Prospects for 2004 will depend on the economic performance of two major trading partners, the US and Japan, and on increased confidence on the part of the international investment community.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $390.7 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 14.5%
industry: 32.3%
services: 53.2% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
40% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 38.4% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
48.1 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.1% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.56 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 45%, industry 15%, services 40% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.4% (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $11.56 billion
expenditures: $15.25 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
77% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes, pork, eggs, beef, fish
Definition Field Listing
electronics assembly, textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-0.1% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
45.21 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
42.04 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,460 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
343,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
164 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
104.6 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.349 billion (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$34.56 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
electronic equipment, machinery and transport equipment, garments, coconut products, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 20.1%, Japan 15.9%, Hong Kong 8.5%, Netherlands 8.1%, Taiwan 6.9%, Malaysia 6.8%, Singapore 6.7%, China 5.9% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$35.97 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
raw materials, machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 20.4%, US 19.8%, Singapore 6.8%, South Korea 6.4%, Taiwan 5%, China 4.8%, Hong Kong 4.3% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16.87 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$57.96 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA commitments, $1.2 billion (2002)
Definition Field Listing
Philippine peso (PHP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Philippine pesos per US dollar - 54.2033 (2003), 51.6036 (2002), 50.9926 (2001), 44.1922 (2000), 39.089 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Philippines
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,310,900 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.201 million (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations
international: country code - 63; 9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 369, FM 583, shortwave 5
note: each shortwave station operates on multiple frequencies in the language of the target audience (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
225; note - 1373 CATV networks (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38,440 (2002)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5 million (2002)
   Transportation    Philippines
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 897 km
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 201,994 km
paved: 42,419 km
unpaved: 159,575 km (2000)
Definition Field Listing
3,219 km
note: limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m (2004)
Definition Field Listing
gas 565 km; oil 135 km; refined products 100 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 385 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,524,259 GRT/6,437,171 DWT
by type: bulk 99, cargo 103, chemical tanker 7, combination bulk 7, container 8, liquefied gas 9, livestock carrier 10, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 45, refrigerated cargo 21, roll on/roll off 16, short-sea/passenger 26, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 19
foreign-owned: Australia 2, Canada 1, Germany 2, Greece 11, Hong Kong 15, Japan 50, Malaysia 5, Netherlands 15, Norway 6, Panama 1, United Kingdom 2, United States 4
registered in other countries: 87 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
253 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 82
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 11 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 171
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 98 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)
   Military    Philippines
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 22,435,982 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 15,780,602 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 851,009 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$995 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (FY98)
   Transnational Issues    Philippines
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
involved in complex dispute with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam and possibly Brunei over the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Philippines retains a claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 150,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
exports locally-produced marijuana and hashish to East Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine; domestic methamphetamine production is a growing problem; remains on Financial Action Task Force Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories List for continued failure to address deficiencies in money-laundering control regime

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

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