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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Map of Norway

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Norway
Definition Field Listing
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that was to last for more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five-years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
   Geography    Norway
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
62 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 324,220 sq km
land: 307,860 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,551 km
border countries: Finland 736 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km
Definition Field Listing
21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Definition Field Listing
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Definition Field Listing
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.87%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.13% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,270 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
rockslides, avalanches
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world
   People    Norway
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,574,560 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 19.8% (male 462,899; female 440,725)
15-64 years: 65.4% (male 1,520,481; female 1,473,101)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 284,170; female 393,184) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 37.9 years
male: 37 years
female: 38.8 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.41% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.89 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.51 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 79.25 years
male: 76.64 years
female: 82.01 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian, Sami 20,000
Definition Field Listing
Evangelical Lutheran 86% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, other 1%, none and unknown 10% (1997)
Definition Field Listing
Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official)
note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: NA
female: NA
   Government    Norway
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Definition Field Listing
7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved; 26 October 1905 Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Definition Field Listing
17 May 1814, modified in 1884
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Kjell Magne BONDEVIK (since 19 October 2001)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (165 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 September 2001 (next to be held NA September 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 24.3%, Conservative Party 21.2%, Progress Party 14.6%, Socialist Left Party 12.5%, Christian People's Party 12.4%, Center Party 5.6%, Liberal Party 3.9%, Coastal Party 1.7%, other 3.8%; seats by party - Labor Party 43, Conservative Party 38, Progress Party 26, Socialist Left Party 23, Christian People's Party 22, Center Party 10, Liberal Party 2, Coastal Party 1
note: for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Coastal Party [Steinar BASTESEN]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Knut VOLLEBAEK
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John D. ONG
embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50
FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
   Economy    Norway
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises). The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices, with oil and gas accounting for one-third of exports. Only Saudi Arabia and Russia export more oil than Norway. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. The government has moved ahead with privatization. With arguably the highest quality of life worldwide, Norwegians still worry about that time in the next two decades when the oil and gas begin to run out. Accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $43 billion. GDP growth was a lackluster 1% in 2002 and 0.5% in 2003 against the background of a faltering European economy.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $171.7 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.6% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $37,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 36.2%
services: 61.2% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.8% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25.8 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.5% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.38 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%, industry 22%, services 74% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $129.8 billion
expenditures: $105.5 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-3.5% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
120.1 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
115.3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
7.162 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
10.76 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.408 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
171,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.466 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
88,870 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.859 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
54.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.716 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.34 billion (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$67.27 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK 21.3%, Germany 13%, Netherlands 9.6%, US 8.7%, France 8.2%, Sweden 7.4% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$40.19 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Sweden 16.1%, Germany 13.3%, Denmark 7.9%, UK 7.2%, US 5.2%, Netherlands 4.5%, China 4.4%, France 4.3%, Italy 4% (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$0 (Norway is a net external creditor) (2003 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian krone (NOK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 7.0802 (2003), 7.9838 (2002), 8.9917 (2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Norway
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.343 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,163,400 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
593,850 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.288 million (2002)
   Transportation    Norway
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4,077 km
standard gauge: 4,077 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 91,454 km
paved: 69,505 km (including 143 km of expressways)
unpaved: 21,949 km (2000)
Definition Field Listing
condensate 411 km; gas 6,199 km; oil 2,213 km; oil/gas/water 746 km; unknown (oil/water) 38 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad, Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger, Tromso, Trondheim
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 693 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,820,495 GRT/27,449,456 DWT
by type: bulk 62, cargo 128, chemical tanker 124, combination bulk 7, combination ore/oil 32, container 15, liquefied gas 84, multi-functional large load carrier 1, passenger 6, petroleum tanker 113, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 48, short-sea/passenger 22, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 43
foreign-owned: Cyprus 3, Denmark 23, Estonia 2, Germany 12, Greece 15, Hong Kong 1, Iceland 2, Japan 10, Lithuania 1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Monaco 33, Poland 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Singapore 12, Sweden 31, United Kingdom 4, United States 5
registered in other countries: 695 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
101 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 65
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 26 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 29 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)
   Military    Norway
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (including Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,106,484 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 916,155 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 27,252 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4,033.5 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Norway
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

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