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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Map of Macedonia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing
International recognition of Macedonia's independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. Macedonia's large Albanian minority, an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in Macedonia in 2001, and the status of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.
   Geography    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Definition Field Listing
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 22.26%
permanent crops: 1.81%
other: 75.93% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
high seismic risks
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
   People    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,071,210 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 21.5% (male 231,078; female 213,906)
15-64 years: 67.8% (male 707,298; female 696,830)
65 years and over: 10.7% (male 97,437; female 124,661) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32.8 years
male: 31.7 years
female: 33.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.39% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.14 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11.74 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.73 years
male: 72.45 years
female: 77.2 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.74 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.8%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.3% (2002)
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian Orthodox 70%, Muslim 29%, other 1%
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian 68%, Albanian 25%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 2%, other 2%
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
   Government    Macedonia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci
note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"
Definition Field Listing
8 September 1991 referendum by registered voters endorsing independence (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Definition Field Listing
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
note: in November of 2001, the Macedonian Assembly approved a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Acting Prime Minister Radmila SEKERINSKA (since 15 November 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties SDSM, LDP, and DUI (or BDI)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held 1 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%; Hari KOSTOV elected prime minister by the Assembly
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote, 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on the percentage that a party gains from the overall vote; all serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition (SDSM and LDP) 60, VMRO-DPMNE 33, Democratic Union for Integration 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Union for Integration or DUI (also BDI) [Ali AHMETI]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris ZMEJKOVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Basri HALITI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD [Abdulmenaf BEXHETI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the SDSM and LDP) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063
FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093
consulate(s) general: Southfield, Michigan
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence Edward BUTLER
embassy: Bul. Ilinden bb, 91000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
   Economy    Macedonia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then rose to 2.8% in 2003. Unemployment at one-third of the workforce remains the most critical economic problem. The gray economy is estimated at around 40% of GDP. Politically, the country is more stable than in 2002.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $13.81 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.8% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 11.3%
industry: 32.1%
services: 56.6% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
30.2% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.2% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
860,000 (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36.7% (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.582 billion
expenditures: $1.661 billion, including capital expenditures of $80 million NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
Definition Field Listing
coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses, steel
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.465 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.112 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
100 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-278 million (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.346 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Yugoslavia 37.8%, Germany 27%, Italy 14.7%, Greece 9.7%, Croatia 6.9%, US 6.1%, Netherlands 4.8% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.184 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Greece 17.3%, Germany 12.6%, Yugoslavia 9.2%, Slovenia 7.9%, Bulgaria 7.4%, Italy 6.2%, Turkey 6% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$935.1 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.929 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$250 million (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian denar (MKD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian denars per US dollar - NA (2003), 64.3498 (2002), 68.0371 (2001), 65.9039 (2000), 56.9018 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Macedonia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
560,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
365,300 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 389
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,738 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
17 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2003 est.)
   Military    Macedonia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; including Air and Air Defense Command)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 555,611 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 448,095 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 17,595 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (FY01/02 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Macedonia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the Albanian government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in Macedonia while continuing to seek regional cooperation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo resist demarcation of the Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro boundary in accordance with the 2000 delimitation treaty, which transfered a small amount of land to Macedonia; dispute with Greece over country's name persists
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 2,678 (ethnic conflict in 2001; most IDPs have returned) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although most criminal activity is thought to be domestic and not a financial center, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement (no arrests or prosecutions for money laundering to date)

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

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