Top banner
The World Factbook Banner

Flag of Mongolia
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Map of Mongolia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Mongolia
Definition Field Listing
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Genghis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a national election in 1996. Since then, elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and ended in a split vote in 2004.
   Geography    Mongolia
Definition Field Listing
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8,220 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Definition Field Listing
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.77%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.23% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
840 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
   People    Mongolia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,751,314 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 29.7% (male 415,735; female 400,560)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 916,445; female 918,235)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 43,205; female 57,134) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23.9 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 24.3 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.43% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.44 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 55.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 64.17 years
male: 61.97 years
female: 66.48 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 500 (2003 est)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Definition Field Listing
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98%
female: 97.5% (2002)
   Government    Mongolia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Definition Field Listing
11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Definition Field Listing
12 February 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
blend of Soviet, German, and US systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ (since 20 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president
elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held in May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 27 July 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)
election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Tsakkhiagiyn ELBEGDOJ elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 74 to 0
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - 2 seats undecided
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUUN]; Democratic Party or DP [M. ENKHSAIKHAN]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIKHAN]
note: The CWRP, DP, and M-MNSDP formed the Motherland-Democracy Coalition or MDC for the 2004 elections; the leader of the coalition is M. ENKHSAIKHAN
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. SLUTZ
embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (11) 329095
FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
   Economy    Mongolia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) government embraced free-market economics, eased price controls, liberalized domestic and international trade, and attempted to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DUC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, was anxious to improve the investment climate; it also had to deal with a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture in early 2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP growth. Despite drought problems in 2002, GDP rose 4.0%, followed by a solid 5.0% increase in 2003. The first applications under the land privatization law have been marked by a number of disputes over particular sites. Russia claims Mongolia owes it $11 billion from the Soviet period; any settlement could substantially increase Mongolia's foreign debt burden.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $4.882 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20.6%
industry: 21.4%
services: 58% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
33% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
44 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
herding/agriculture 46%, manufacturing 6%, trade 10.3%, public sector 4.7%, other/unemployed 33% (2001)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.6% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $387 million
expenditures: $428 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Definition Field Listing
construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.225 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.194 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
25 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
196 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$524 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 46.1%, US 23.2%, Russia 6.7%, Singapore 5.7%, Australia 5.5%, UK 4.2% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$691 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 33.1%, China 21.5%, South Korea 8.5%, Japan 7.9%, Germany 4.7% (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$885 million (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$332 million (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,171 (2003), 1,110.31 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,021.87 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Mongolia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
128,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
216,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons
domestic: NA
international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
9 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Mongolia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,810 km
broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 49,250 km
paved: 1,724 km
unpaved: 47,526 km (2003)
Definition Field Listing
580 km
note: only waterway in operation is Lake Khovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orkhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 339,423 GRT/533,853 DWT
by type: bulk 4, cargo 53, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: Belize 1, Cambodia 1, China 4, Cuba 1, Hong Kong 2, Indonesia 1, Japan 1, North Korea 1, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Romania 1, Russia 14, Singapore 13, Syria 4, Thailand 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1, United States 3, Vietnam 4 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
36 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 5 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)
   Military    Mongolia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Mongolian People's Army (comprising Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces), Border Guards, Internal Security Forces, Construction Corps Forces, Civil Defense Authority
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 818,977 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 530,594 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 33,718 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$23.1 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2% (FY02)
   Transnational Issues    Mongolia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004

Bottom Banner