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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Moldova
Flag of Moldova
Map of Moldova
Introduction Moldova
Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
Geography Moldova
Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 29 00 E
Map references:
total: 33,843 sq km
water: 472 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
moderate winters, warm summers
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources:
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land use:
arable land: 55.3%
permanent crops: 10.79%
other: 33.91% (2001)
Irrigated land:
3,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Environment - current issues:
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
People Moldova
4,446,455 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 20.6% (male 466,485; female 449,645)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 1,478,220; female 1,595,695)
65 years and over: 10.3% (male 169,026; female 287,384) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 32.1 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 34.3 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.18% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
14.81 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
12.76 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 41 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 43.96 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.03 years
male: 60.88 years
female: 69.39 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
5,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 300 (2001 est.)
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups:
Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, Gagauz and other 5.2% (1989 est.)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.6%
female: 98.7% (2003 est.)
Government Moldova
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia
local short form: none
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
: counties: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
: municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
: territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
: autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979
Legal system:
based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2005); note - presidential elections were scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct, popular elections; Parliament's failure to choose a new president in December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections in February 2001; prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; note - within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001
election results: Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
cabinet: selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile IOVV (since 29 January 2002); Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry TODOROGLO (since 19 April 2001)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance (now Our Moldova Alliance) 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance (now Our Moldova Alliance) 19, PPCD 11
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party [Dumitru DIACOV]; Communist Party of Moldova or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Our Moldova Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS, Serafim URECHEANU]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Social Liberal Party [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mihail MANOLI
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Heather M. HODGES
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 408-300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-30-44
Flag description:
same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
Economy Moldova
Economy - overview:
Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000, 6.1% in 2001, 7.2% in 2002, and 6.3% in 2003. Further reforms will come slowly because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.
purchasing power parity - $7.792 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 27%
services: 52% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
17.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
40.6 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.6% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
1.383 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 40%, industry 14%, services 46% (1998)
Unemployment rate:
8% (roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad) (2002 est.)
revenues: $474.8 million
expenditures: $443.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
88.4% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
17% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
3.394 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 90.6%
hydro: 9.4%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
3.216 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
60 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
24,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
2.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
$-135 million (2004 est.)
$790 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners:
Russia 39%, Romania 11.4%, Italy 10.4%, Germany 7.1%, Ukraine 7.1%, Belarus 5.2%, US 4.3% (2003)
$1.34 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
mineral products and fuel 32%, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners:
Ukraine 22%, Russia 13%, Germany 9.7%, Italy 8.3%, Romania 7% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
$302.3 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$1.515 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$100 million (2000)
Moldovan leu (MDL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
lei per US dollar - 13.9449 (2003), 13.5705 (2002), 12.8651 (2001), 12.4342 (2000), 10.5158 (1999)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Moldova
Telephones - main lines in use:
706,900 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
338,200 (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some effort to modernize is under way
domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
3.22 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
1.26 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
11,984 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (1999)
Internet users:
150,000 (2002)
Transportation Moldova
total: 1,138 km
broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
total: 12,657 km
paved: 11,012 km
unpaved: 1,645 km (1999)
424 km (2004)
gas 606 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
24 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 11 (2003 est.)
Military Moldova
Military branches:
National Army: Ground Forces, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (12 months of national service required) (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,186,818 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 942,071 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 44,466 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$9.5 million (FY03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.4% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Moldova
Disputes - international:
difficulties with the Transnistria region complicate controlling border crossing and customs regimes with Ukraine, despite concordance on 2003 delimitation and customs protocols and OSCE assistance
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 1,000 (internal secessionist uprising in Transdniestrian region in 1991) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004