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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Hungary
Flag of Hungary
Map of Hungary
Introduction Hungary
Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.
Geography Hungary
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
total: 93,030 sq km
water: 690 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 50.09%
other: 47.85% (2001)
permanent crops: 2.06%
Irrigated land:
2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues:
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
People Hungary
10,032,375 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 826,032; female 782,687)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,407,931; female 3,517,450)
65 years and over: 15% (male 545,488; female 952,787) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.4 years
male: 35.9 years
female: 41.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.25% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
9.77 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
13.16 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 9.34 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.25 years
male: 68.07 years
female: 76.69 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:
Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)
Government Hungary
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
: counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
: urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
: capital city: Budapest
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:
rule of law based on Western model
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since 4 August 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - 197 to 12
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004
head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - Fidesz/MDF 48.70%, MSzP 46.11%, SzDSz 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - Fidesz 164, MSzP 178, MDF 24, SzDSz 20
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz-MPP [Jozsef SZAJER, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador George Herbert WALKER
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
Economy Hungary
Economy - overview:
Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income one-half that of the Big Four European nations. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and joined the European Union in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation has declined substantially, from 14% in 1998 to 4.7% in 2003; unemployment has persisted around the 6% level. Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Short-term issues include the reduction of the public sector deficit and further increasing the flexibility of the labor markets.
purchasing power parity - $139.8 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $13,900 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 32.5%
services: 64.2% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
22% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
8.6% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
24.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.7% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
4.164 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 8%, industry 27%, services 65% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
5.9% (2004 est.)
revenues: $35 billion
expenditures: $39.88 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
57% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
6.4% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
34.39 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 60.1%
hydro: 0.5%
other: 0.3% (2001)
nuclear: 39%
Electricity - consumption:
35.15 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
7.261 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
10.43 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
41,190 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
140,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
47,180 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
136,600 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
110.7 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
3.231 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
13.37 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
4 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
9.587 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
50.45 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
$-7.347 billion (2004 est.)
$42.03 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 57.6%, other manufactures 31.0%, food products 7.5%, raw materials 1.9%, fuels and electricity 1.9% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Germany 34.1%, Austria 8%, Italy 5.8%, France 5.7%, UK 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003)
$46.19 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.3%, fuels and electricity 8.2%, food products 2.9%, raw materials 2.0% (2001)
Imports - partners:
Germany 24.5%, Italy 7.1%, China 6.9%, Austria 6.3%, Russia 6.2%, France 4.8%, Japan 4.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
$12.78 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$42.38 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA $250 million (2000)
forint (HUF)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
forints per US dollar - 224.307 (2003), 257.887 (2002), 286.49 (2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Hungary
Telephones - main lines in use:
3,666,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
6,862,800 (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
7.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
4.42 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
383,071 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
16 (2000)
Internet users:
1.6 million (2002)
Transportation Hungary
total: 7,937 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,682 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2003)
total: 188,203 km
paved: 81,680 km (including 438 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,523 km (1999)
1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2004)
gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)
Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 7,568 GRT/10,025 DWT
by type: cargo 2
registered in other countries: 8 (2003 est.)
43 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (2003 est.)
914 to 1,523 m: 11
5 (2003 est.)
Military Hungary
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,519,052 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,011,750 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 64,426 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.75% (2002 est.)
Transnational Issues Hungary
Disputes - international:
Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in neighboring states, who had objected to the law; Slovakia and Hungary have renewed discussions on ways to resolve differences over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam on the Danube, with possible resort again to the ICJ for final resolution
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004