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Flag of Croatia
Map of Croatia
Introduction Croatia
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
Geography Croatia
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
total: 56,542 sq km
water: 128 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro (north) 241 km, Serbia and Montenegro (south) 25 km, Slovenia 670 km
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 26.09%
permanent crops: 2.27%
other: 71.65% (2001)
Irrigated land:
30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits
People Croatia
4,496,869 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.6% (male 383,729; female 364,287)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,497,525; female 1,515,956)
65 years and over: 16.4% (male 277,616; female 457,756) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.7 years
male: 37.7 years
female: 41.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.02% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
9.51 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 7.03 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.14 years
male: 70.21 years
female: 78.29 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.39 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
200 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 10 (2001 est.)
noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, Bosniak 0.5%, Hungarian 0.4%, Slovene 0.3%, Czech 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Albanian 0.1%, Montenegrin 0.1%, others 4.1% (2001)
Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, others and unknown 6.2% (2001)
Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.4%
female: 97.8% (2003 est.)
Government Croatia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
Government type:
presidential/parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
adopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001
Legal system:
based on civil law system
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivo SANADER (since 9 December 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 December 2003) and Andrija HEBRANG (since 23 December 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister nominated by the president in line with the balance of power in the Assembly
note: minority government coalition - HDZ, DC, HSLS
election results: Stjepan MESIC elected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA (HSLS) 44%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Sabor (152 seats; note - one seat was added in the November 2003 parliamentary elections; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - House of Counties was abolished in March 2001
election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; number of seats by party - HDZ 66, SDP 34, HSS 10, HNS 10, HSP 8, IDS 4, Libra 3, HSU 3, SDSS 3, other 11
elections: Assembly - last held 23 November 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
Political parties and leaders:
Croatian Bloc or HB [Ivic PASALIC]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Anto KOVACEVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Ivan CEHOK]; Croatian True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STRANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Ivo BANAC]; Party of Liberal Democrats or Libra [Jozo RADOS]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Neven JURICA
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph FRANK
embassy: Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)
Economy Croatia
Economy - overview:
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. The economy emerged from its mild recession in 2000 with tourism the main factor, but massive structural unemployment remains a key negative element. The government's failure to press the economic reforms needed to spur growth is largely the result of coalition politics and public resistance, particularly from the trade unions. Opponents fear reforms would cut jobs, wages, and social benefits. The government has a heavy back log of civil cases, many involving tenure land. The country is likely to experience only moderate growth without disciplined fiscal and structural reform.
purchasing power parity - $47.05 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $10,600 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.9%
industry: 30%
services: 62.1% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
27.7% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 23.3% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
1.69 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 13.2%, industry 25.4%, services 46.4% (2002)
Unemployment rate:
19.5% (2004 est.)
revenues: $12.76 billion
expenditures: $14.31 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
69.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
3.9% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
12.12 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 33.6%
hydro: 66%
other: 0.4% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
14.27 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
386 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
3.386 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
29,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
89,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
93.6 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
1.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.84 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
34.36 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
$-2.039 billion (2004 est.)
$6.355 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports - partners:
Italy 26.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 14.6%, Germany 12%, Slovenia 8.3%, Austria 7.9% (2003)
$12.86 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Italy 17.9%, Germany 15.7%, Slovenia 7.4%, Austria 6.6%, France 5.3%, Russia 4.7% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
$8.191 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$23.56 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA $66 million (2000)
kuna (HRK)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
kuna per US dollar - 6.7035 (2003), 7.8687 (2002), 8.34 (2001), 8.2766 (2000), 7.1124 (1999)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Croatia
Telephones - main lines in use:
1.825 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.553 million (2003)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
1.51 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)
1.22 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
29,644 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
9 (2000)
Internet users:
1.014 million (2003)
Transportation Croatia
total: 2,726 km
standard gauge: 2,726 km 1.435-m gauge (984 km electrified) (2003)
total: 28,123 km
paved: 23,792 km (including 410 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,331 km (2000)
785 km (2004)
gas 1,374 km; oil 583 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar
Merchant marine:
total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 750,579 GRT/1,178,786 DWT
by type: bulk 16, cargo 14, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 5, multi-functional large load carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea/passenger 3
registered in other countries: 44 (2003 est.)
foreign-owned: Hong Kong 3, Russia 1
68 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 23
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (2003 est.)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 37 (2003 est.)
1 (2003 est.)
Military Croatia
Military branches:
Ground Forces (Hrvatska Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM), Air and Air Defense Forces (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzrakoplovna Obrana, HRZiPZO)
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,100,132 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 873,994 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 30,639 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$520 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.39% (2002 est.)
Transnational Issues Croatia
Disputes - international:
discussions continue with Bosnia and Herzegovina over disputed territory around Kostajnica on the Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica; the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains controversial, has not been ratified, and has been complicated by Croatia's declaration of an ecological-fisheries zone in the Adriatic Sea
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 12,600 (Croats and Serbs displaced in 1992-1995 war) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004